The UK legal system is a specialist tribunal and it deals with matters related to employment, immigration and tax in England and Wales. The Supreme Court remains the final court of appeals for all civil and criminal UK cases in England, Wales and North Ireland. UK and North Ireland consists of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and North Ireland. Some laws applies to throughout the UK while some for two or three countries.
The sources of UK law
There are four principal sources of UK law and they are:
- European Union law
- Common law
- European convention on human rights
Legislation – The law in the UK is created by the legislature and the most important piece of the law is the Act of parliament. The UK parliament based in London is the principal legislature and it remains the only body which hold power to pass laws that can be applied in all four countries. The UK parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are 650 members of parliament in House of Commons and each MP represents defined geographic consistency. Each elector will have one vote and the candidate with the highest number of votes will be elected as MP for the constituency. There are nearly 800 peers in the House of Lords, among them, few are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Northern Ireland Assembly, the National Assembly for Wales and the Scottish Parliament have power to pass law on devolved matters.
European Union Law – The UK remains a member state of the European Union and the law takes precedence over UK law.
Common law – The legal system of Wales and England has one common law and the decision is taken by the senior appellate courts.
The European convention on human rights –UK is the signatory to the European convention on human rights. The human rights act, which came into effect in October 2000, enables all courts in the UK to protect the rights which are identified in ECHR.
How the UK legal system works
The UK has three different judicial systems: England and Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland.
England and Wales
Criminal laws in England and Wales cover serious crimes such as robbery, murder and assault. If anyone breaks the law, they are prosecuted in the court. If anyone found guilty, they will be sent to prison, fined or given community sentences. Civil law includes disputes between people, company and organization. In criminal cases, if found guilty, the jury will issue their sentence.
The judicial system in Scotland
The Scottish justice department handles issues involving criminal and civil law. Laws on issues are made by the Scottish parliament and they have the right to act independently.
The judicial system in Northern Ireland
The legal system in Northern Ireland is similar to that in England and Wales. The Lord Chancellor would be responsible for court administration in Northern Ireland. The office deals with policy and legislation related to criminal law, police